Puppies of all colours can potentially occur in the same litter. Colour is determined primarily by three genes. The first gene (the B locus) determines the density of the coat's eumelanin pigment granules, if that pigment is allowed: dense granules result in a black coat, sparse ones give a chocolate coat. The second (E) locus determines whether the eumelanin is produced at all. A dog with the recessive e allele will produce only phaeomelanin pigment and will be yellow regardless of its genotype at the B locus. The genes known about previously have had their number increased by the introduction of the K locus, where the dominant "black" allele KB is now known to reside. Black or chocolate Labradors therefore must have the KB allele. Yellow Labradors are determined at the E locus, so the K locus is irrelevant in determining their colour. Variations in numerous other genes control the subtler details of the coat's colouration, which in yellow Labradors varies from white to light gold to a fox red. Chocolate and black Labradors' noses will match the coat colour.
3. Children who grow up with dogs are not only healthier but they are also more well-adjusted human beings. Studies have shown that kids who live with dogs have stronger immune systems, fewer allergies and possibly even healthier microbiomes. Other research has revealed that kids raised with dogs feel more caring, happy, responsible and intelligent. And dogs love their little humans just as much as they love their big humans.
Andrea Romano is a freelance writer and video editor in New York. She has worked for several publications, including Mashable, Travel + Leisure, and Bustle, as well as Brit + Co. She received her BA in Theater from the University of Northern Colorado and a Master’s degree in Media Studies and Film from The New School. When she is not working, she is writing sketch comedy and storytelling through The People's Improv Theatre and loves to knit and play music.
“My favorite dog-related item that I personally own is a gift I gave myself when I got into the business of dog training: a specially sized Bone Toggle Collar from Wagwear, an New York City–based doggy accessories boutique,” says Anthony Newman, a certified canine-behavior consultant who founded Calm Energy Dog Training. “I’ve worn it on my wrist now for nearly ten years, all day every day; it expresses my love for dogs and it’s truly unique, with beautiful hand-stitched leather and brass. Though I suppose you can also use it as an actual dog collar, as founder and designer Amy intended it.”
OFA Hips: Good. OFA Elbows: Normal. OFA Congenital Cardiac: Clear. CERF: Clear. Optigen prcd-PRA : Clear. EIC: Clear. CNM: Clear. Narcolepsy (NARC): Clear. “Cadence" is son of HRCH Doubleplay Legacy's Reign “Bond,” JH, CGC and grandson of Canadian/Am/International CH Balcroft Silonas Time to Reign (recently featured in the Labrador Quarterly). He is also grandson of 3xGRHRCH Legacy's Atchafalaya Nightmare “Gator” JH.
Of the over 4,000 US war dogs serving in the Vietnam War, 232 were killed in action, and 295 US servicemen deployed as "dog handlers" were killed in action. Dog handler Robert W. Hartsock was awarded the Medal of Honor. Six Labrador Retrievers were killed in action while assigned to the 62nd and 63rd US Army Combat Tracking Teams. During the course of the war the US Army lost 204 dogs, while the US Marine Corps and US Air Force lost 13 and 15 dogs, respectively.
The first St. John's dog was said to be brought to England in or around 1820, but the breed's reputation had already spread to England; there is a story that the 2nd Earl of Malmesbury saw a St. John's dog on a fishing boat and immediately made arrangements with traders to have some of these dogs imported to England. These ancestors of the first labradors so impressed the Earl with their skill and ability for retrieving anything within the water and on shore that he devoted his entire kennel to developing and stabilising the breed.
Some dogs are simply easier than others: they take to training better and are fairly easygoing. They're also resilient enough to bounce back from your mistakes or inconsistencies. Dogs who are highly sensitive, independent thinking, or assertive may be harder for a first-time owner to manage. You'll get your best match if you take your dog-owning experience into account as you choose your new pooch.